Language plays an important role in our lives. It’s not just about communicating and interacting, but also about sending indirect messages through our chosen words. This can have challenging consequences in society regarding individual attitudes and lifestyles. In recent years there have been linguistic changes intended to make our language more inclusive. But why now?
The classic role allocation
Up to the 20th century there was a clear gender distinction in life. It was common that men provide for their families, go to work and manage the finances. Meanwhile the women stay at home to take care of the home and children. Back then, people didn’t think about changing common gendered expressions in the language they used. The words used just reflected the structure of society at the time. Terms like ‘manpower’ were clearly adequate to describe the workforce in that times, which consisted of male workers. But should we still stick to those expressions nowadays?
Language develops with culture
In modern society we’re more aware of these antiquated prejudices in general. Over the last century, awareness for equal rights of women and minorities has risen. Since our way of expression and communication reflects our mindsets and attitudes, it changes as our habits do. Why should we hold on to terms that exclude minorities, when we aim to include them in our society and fight for their equal rights? It wouldn’t make any sense to hold on to them because we don’t want to harm anybody’s feelings by using exclusive language. If we care about other people, we also have to choose our words wisely.
Cis men are still privileged
Regardless, there are still many situations where cis men are regarded as superior. The question is: does language change our society or does society change our language? We could say they influence each other. If people are not willing to adapt their attitudes towards modern movements, their language won’t either. But if we don’t become aware of the effect our way of speaking has on our habits, we won’t rethink how we’re living.
Make a change
We can see in political debates, that there are still problems and challenges in our efforts to be more inclusive. Raising awareness towards minorities and all the terms that could negatively affect others, seems very demanding and often difficult to realize. However, isn’t it better to try our hardest rather than to simply give up? Obviously, change doesn’t happen overnight, but if we keep trying we can improve our world one word at a time – for all of us.
back. We know you’ve swallowed the entire first part of this interview within a
few minutes. Go get a drink and do some intellectual push-ups for warming up.
There’s more to come.
“You are not only a famous philosopher, but also a famous author. How do you connect
philosophy and business?”
“You see, I wish the business part was mine, but unfortunately it’s not. The
business part is for the publishing companies. No, I’m joking. Frankly, I don’t
know how a book comes to be read by many people. What matters, as far as I am concerned,
is that you choose to do something and you do it the best you can. You find joy
in doing it. You don’t regret, once it’s done, that you could have done it this
way or another. And when you reach that state with work, with a book, with
writing, you let it go.”
“You let it
go because you have equipped it with the resources for it to travel by itself.
The moment you release it, there’s nothing you can do. It travels its own way,
it speaks to people or not, it will sell or not. These are decisions that are
beyond your control. What I am interested in, the moment I release my work, I
‘set it free’, is knowing full well I have done the best I could. And your
satisfaction comes from the knowledge and the conviction that you have done the
best. That is what matters to me. Questions of reputation or money are not really
the way I conceive of all of this.”
“You get paid in self-respect?”
“Exactly. Your payment is the level of self-respect you think you have gathered
through your work, your dedication and the joy produced in the act of writing.
I think, if you do not find joy in what you’re doing, you shouldn’t do it, you
should abandon it. So in that sense, I think you have to find joy in what you
do, not caring about others. And you have to allow people to take your work in
directions you didn’t expect. That’s how it speaks to them. If it doesn’t speak
to them, it just means it’s not a successful piece of work. The process, on the
other hand, is about joy and freedom, if you ask me. In whatever one does, how
does one achieve or experience these two affects?”
“Do you think your books are received differently in the West than in Africa?”
“Yes. And in fact, they are received differently in different places within the
West. For instance, the book called Critique of Black Reason was received very
positively in Germany and in a lukewarm manner in the Netherlands. They didn’t
like it. There are always different reactions. For example, On the Postcolony,
a book I published in 2010, was basically ignored in France, even though I
wrote in French. And then it had a magnificent reception in the US. And only
after that, the French public began to care. But the book has never really made
the kind of impact it had in the Anglophone in France or the francophone world.
I think, in the case of France and On the Postcolony, people in France didn’t
know what to do with it.”
partly because, in the academic world in France, people are still extremely
stuck within specific disciplines. If you are a historian, you act and write
like a historian. If you are a sociologist, you are only that. There is not
much interest in interdisciplinary research. And the book was very
interdisciplinary. So they did not know how to classify it. And I also think the
style of writing was not academic enough in their opinion, nor was it
considered to be just public writing. It was a hybrid form and the French did
not know what to make of it. But in America, then, it received respect from many
“What authors do you read? And I am not talking about research papers, but
books you read for entertainment.”
read novels, mainly. Lots of novels. French contemporary novels, African
novels, Chinese and Japanese novels. A lot from Latin America, but not that
much from the US or England. The choice is huge already, but I think I should
probably still expand it…”
listen to lots of music, all kind of musical forms. I watch too much soccer,
I’m almost an addict. I also cook, which is very good for meditation. Cooking
is a fantastic exercise. Or running on the grass. I don’t go to the gym, I go
running and playing soccer, on the open air.”
“I’m sure you know Chimamanda Adichie. She talks about the concept of the single
story, and how, growing up in Africa, she used to read Western literature and
how it influenced people in negative ways, how it made people write novels that
were Westernized, rather than Africanized.”
have a feeling that this might not be entirely true for all of us – an African
writer writing in French would not say it. This might be a very anglophone
problem. Writers such as Alain Mabanckou or Kossi Efoui wouldn’t say it,
because they would not have the same idea on what being ‘African’ is all about.
They would not see a clear-cut opposition between African things and Western
things, not in the same way as Chimamanda does.”
writing, there is much more fluidity between different spaces, much more playfulness
with, for instance, the French language, much more mixing of forms, much more –
to use the title of your magazine – respect for ‘misfits’. And this is what
makes their styles extremely fluorescent, extremely luxurious, extremely
playful, too. What is really interesting in this kind of work is the degree to
which they are willing to combine things we do not usually combine.”
“Talking about things that aren’t usually combined, you come from a country
that people like to refer to as a ‘third-world’ or ‘developing’ country. We are
from Germany. Few people would name our countries in the same sentence, one
directly after the other. So how do you think, generally speaking, cooperation
of richer and poorer countries could be improved, for mutual benefit?”
think there is a difference between a ‘cooperation’, that is based on ignorance
and real cooperation that is based on the knowledge of each other. People who
do not know each other can hardly cooperate creatively or fruitfully. And it
seems to me that the big obstacle to cooperation between developed and
so-called undeveloped countries is wilful ignorance. So in order to improve
cooperation between these two entities, there is an absolute necessity to get
to know each other better.”
we have the means to know each other, to know Africa, its diverse and complex history;
we do have the means to know. The question is, why do we still need to invest
in prejudice, why this infatuation with ignorance and prejudice, when we do
have the means to know. I think that is the question we have to ask.”
this investment in ignorance is so big because ignorance allows you to be irresponsible
and still act in good conscience, even if the results are catastrophic. It
seems to me that the West is invested wilfully in massive ignorance in regards
to the rest of the world. Because only wilful ignorance allows the West to act
irresponsibly. So if we want to change the system, we have to know a bit more.
And that is possible – the knowledge is there and it is accessible. There is no
reason why anyone, anywhere in the world, should be ignorant about others. Just
do the work.”
“When we talk about postcolonialism, we often mention how language divides people,
how the way we speak about Africa, for instance, is completely different from
the way we speak about Western countries. I’m going to be a teacher – how will
I teach my students not to be ignorant, not to divide the world through
“You see the material is there. One of the beauties of the new technologies is
that they have helped the world to build new libraries, metaphorically
speaking. And these libraries are mobile, they are portable, they are
accessible. The Internet allows us access to a multiplicity of documents, of
data, of facts, that, if used, would probably unleash the making of entirely
new forms of knowledge – images, videos, sounds, documentaries, photographs…”
material is there. The key is to organize it and use it in a pedagogical
manner, so that it responds better to the expectations of our times. The
material exists, but our thresholds have increased because of the high exposure
to technology. So we need to pull people out of their own ignorance and unlock
their sense of critical reading of these materials.”
would like to thank you for the interview.”
was my pleasure.”
(This text has been edited for clarity and length)
Have you heard of Achille Mbembe, the famous
Johannesburg-based philosopher from Cameroon, who graced our university with
his visit in summer 2018? If you haven’t, read on to find out what makes him
just the kind of person you want to quote at all the fancy cocktail parties we
know you’re attending on a weekly basis. And if you have, you already know what
you have to do: stay where you are to get the intellectual boost you so
desperately need during exam season.
Katharina and Niklas from eMAG got a chance to
interview Achille Mbembe in one of his few free hours. If you like the
interview, don’t forget to read the second part, which will be published
“What role can philosophy play in times of populism, as well as political and
think that we live in a time when the need for a critical understanding of
where our world is going is more urgent than ever before. And philosophy as the
key discipline that teaches us how to exercise our reason is absolutely
central, not only for training and education of students today, but also in
helping to sustain a democratic public sphere – one in which rational deliberation
is at the centre of exchange and communication among citizens. I believe that
we need to put philosophy as the critical exercise of reason at the heart of
what living together is all about, both nationally and globally.”
“When you write and publish your books, what sort of audience do you usually
have in mind? Whom do you expect to read your books?”
“The audience is composed of people of good will, who are interested in the
types of questions the books address; people, who are interested in making our
world habitable and hospitable. I believe that the current moment, we are in,
is full of risks and dangers, and that the need to repair our planet is probably
the most urgent task humanity is facing. And I take writing as part of the
tools we use as we undertake the task of repair. And therefore, those I have in
mind when I write are those who would like to take part in that planetary
endeavour of repairing.”
“When you were still a student in Cameroon, you used to work for a Christian
student group. Would you say that your religious beliefs influence your work as
“It is true that I grew up in a Catholic family, and I went through Catholic
educational institutions, secondary school in particular. I also was involved
with an organisation called the Young Catholic Students, which is an
international organisation and a huge part of my world view was shaped by
traditions of Christianity that had to do in particular with liberation
“But I am
not a practitioner. I’m interested in Christianity as a set of ideas and in so
far as it offers life ethics, parts of which speak to what I consider to be key
problems of our time. So I have an interest in religion in general as a key
dimension of people’s existence, how they make sense of their lives, how they
relate to themselves and to others, as well as to the forces that are above
them. In that sense, my interest in religion is not limited to Catholicism or
Christianity. I’m just as interested in Jewish theology as in African
pre-colonial modes of religion.”
said, I still think I have taken a lot from Christianity, intellectually as
well as in my own life. And what is very striking in Christianity is the way in
which it puts at its centre the Other, with a capital O. In fact, in Christian
thought the Other is the Alpha and Omega of every act of faith. That means you
are not a believer if the Other is not at the centre of your thoughts. So that
preoccupation with the Other is something I consider to be the kernel of faith
itself – and of the practice of faith, if you want to speak in those terms.”
“Talking about the Other, both Germany and Britain – and, of course, France –
have a colonial past in Cameroon, and not exactly a glorious past. Does it feel
in any way strange to you to be talking to an English-speaking magazine while
in Germany? Is it hard for you to look over our shared past?”
“Not really. I’ve spent my entire life dealing with this kind of situation. And
I need to speak many different languages. It’s true that the English language
is one of the dominant languages of our world, but I also believe that the
world that is coming will be a multilingual world, and that those who are the
best-positioned to harness the beauty of our world in any way are people who
can speak more than one language. Of course, translation is truly important,
but multilingualism, I believe, is the way of the future. And monolingualism is
the worst way to prepare oneself for what the future of the planet holds for
each of us. So I don’t see it at all as a problem.”
“In fact, I
think both English and French have become African languages. They have been
thoroughly Africanized, just as they have been Asianized to a large extent.
They are spoken by millions of people. They have been spoken by millions of
people over centuries, and that’s enough to qualify them as African or Asian
languages, I think.”
“What are your associations concerning the term misfits, last term’s main topic
for our paper magazine?”
“That’s an interesting concept. That which does not fit, which is out of place,
and yet its very existence opens up a whole set of new possibilities. So, on
the one hand, I think that it’s an unfortunate concept when one applies it, for
instance, to those who are not us. Those who seem to not belong or those whose
presence we think is abnormal, those who do not look like us, who suffer from maladaptation.
We can tolerate them, but they don’t really fit with us, there is always a
“So in that
sense, it’s an unfortunate concept, but on the other hand the beauty of the
concept is that a misfit always allows for unexpected possibilities to emerge.
I think there is a productive dimension to the concept, in the sense that it
allows for the emergence of the unexpected.”
that sense, for all that’s to it, it’s a paradoxical concept. It’s a
double-edged concept. If you have a misfit in your midst, you cannot predict
what will happen. It makes it impossible to predict what happens when you bring
in a foreign body, or something that shouldn’t be there. It’s a way of creating
a new form.”
“Talking about foreign bodies, both Cameroon and Germany are countries that
have accepted lots of refugees. Refugees from different conflicts maybe, but
refugees all the same. What are your thoughts on welcoming refugees, on how we
should live together?”
“Let’s start by defining what a refugee is. Strictly speaking, a refugee is a
human person who has been forced to leave the place he or she used to inhabit,
his or her home country, as a result of a catastrophe. Whether a natural
catastrophe or a human-made catastrophe – war, famine – an event that has made
it impossible for that person to fully enjoy his or her existence in that
place. This is what a refugee is: A human being running away from danger and in
search of protection.”
usually, in the strictest sense of the term, a refugee is a human being whose
life is in danger if he or she doesn’t leave. So the choice refugees have is
pretty simple: either you stay and run the risk of losing your life, or you go.
Most people don’t want to leave their home, the place where they were born.
This is what people would prefer, to conduct their lives in the place where
they were born. Refugees are people who have no choice but to go.”
question is, when they knock on our door, do we open the door or do we tell
them, ‘We’re not here, go somewhere else.’ I think that each society has to
make this decision and it’s a good thing that, in the midst of the dramatic
crises of the last few years, Germany has decided to open its doors to a number
of people who would have been in danger otherwise. And Germany has done much
more than many other European countries, both in terms of numbers and in terms
of creating the conditions for receiving people in a way that ensures their
dignity. But of course, as we know, everywhere this is a very complicated
issue. Of course, you have people who do not want to see refugees for all kinds
of reasons. The fact is that they don’t want them, they want to keep the doors
Germany, Cameroon, other places like Turkey – these are choices those societies
have to make, they have to decide whether or not this is something they want to
do. I believe lots of people think that the German government made the right
choice. Now, of course that raises all kinds of issues. I guess that’s part of
the democratic debate. Society has to decide if it wants to live by a certain
set of values, including the value of hospitality and assistance to the part of
humanity that is in danger, or whether it simply wants to be indifferent to
what happens to human life elsewhere. Europe has to make that choice. Our
entire planet has to make a choice of how we deal with that part of our
humanity that is in danger.”
also have to look at the issues that are at stake. For instance, the West
cannot go on destroying entire countries and bomb them to the ground, like in
Syria, in Iraq, in Libya, in many other parts of the world, and expect people
to just stay there. Of course, people will want to run away from danger. So
it’s also a question of responsibility. We can’t go and destroy entire
environments, entire people’s histories, cultures, and then say, ‘No, no, you
stay there. Don’t come here.’ This is not responsible. So if we don’t want
people to come here, let’s make sure we do not aggravate the situation where
they are, we don’t render life in their homeland unsustainable. So I think
these are also dimensions that have to be brought into these kinds of
discussions. You cannot keep your door closed if you mess up with the little
be done with a whole variety of means, with pillaging their natural resources,
their wealth, rendering the environment toxic, extract all we can, leave with
nothing behind. It can be done by selling weapons to dictators who do the
destruction indirectly. Responsibility is absolutely key; responsibility is
justice. A huge part of what sets people in motion is the weight of injustice.
So it’s a debate we have to have, and I hope that this year it will be
conducted beyond just hate and passion.”
“You mentioned home, and that most people would prefer to stay there. What does
that term mean to you, since you’ve been around more than most of us.“
have no idea what my home is. I’ve spent my entire life moving from one place
to another. I guess if you spend your life like that, moving from one place to
another, what you end up doing is that you carry them with yourself, bits and
pieces of the many places you have inhabited. So they accompany you along the
way. You carry memories. Your home is memory, if you want. Memory becomes your
home. The memory of the many places you have been to find yourself. So home is
no longer just a physical space you enter or exit. It travels with you
throughout a life of movement.”
(This text has been edited for length and clarity.)
Think back to your childhood for a second and try to remember the things that seemed strictly sci-fi to you. Cool tech people used in movies and stories like it’s the most normal thing in the world, but surely couldn’t exist in real life. For me, things like Star Trek’s holodeck and scanners come to mind. Turns out that these things are now just around the corner.
Reality and then some
With the big splash Virtual Reality headsets have made over the last year, with the releases of consumer headsets like the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive, the holodeck seems to be well on its way to our living rooms, but so far, VR also seems to remain a feature reserved for games. Augmented Reality (AR), the other side of the alternative reality coin, might prove more versatile. Interestingly enough, it was a game that finally introduced a larger audience to it: Pokémon Go. Instead of creating a virtual world for you to roam around in, AR adds things to the real world that you can then interact with in real time. In Pokémon Go this was still mostly a gimmick, but there’s a lot of potential in this technology. Here are some ideas.
GPS devices work pretty well for getting you to where you need to go, but having to constantly look away from the road to peek at the map can be pretty annoying. And dangerous! How much cooler would it be if you could see your route right in front of you? For cars, the windshield could act as a screen that highlights turns. And for pedestrians a similar system could be used with glasses. Although, I guess here your phone screen could work too. People might feel a bit self-conscious wearing something that makes them look like Geordi La Forge.
You know those plaques on historical buildings all over Augsburg with information about why the place is notable? They’re kinda concise, don’t you think? And a guided tour takes forever. Wouldn’t it be much better if you could walk around at your own pace, check out places you really care about and go into as much detail as you really want? An interactive overlay could do the job. You just look (with glasses), or point your screen (on a phone) at a location of interest and the options pop up. Not just a boring Wikipedia page or a long monologue. No, just what you want to know, right in front of you.
And much more
This doesn’t have to be a thing for tourists only. Look at the sky to get the forecast for the next few hours. Walk towards a bus stop and immediately see how that line can get you to your destination. Point at the cinema and see what movies are on this evening. These are just a few ideas for how AR could be used in the near future. It might still be a while until we finally get our very own dedicated holodeck, but at least this gives us all ample time to plan the layout.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – a name you should be familiar with. Everybody knows Mozart and has heard at least one of his amazing pieces or seen one of his famous operas. But what if I tell you that most of what you think you know about Amadeus was actually made up after his death and is probably not true? What if even the name you’re so familiar with isn’t his actual name?
Before you start panicking, there’s still something that has remained almost unadulterated and that is his music. Although Mozart lived in the eighteenth century, which is quite a while ago, we still listen to his music today and even if you don’t listen to it in your free time, you’ll at least have heard some at school.
Mozartfest Augsburg 19th May – 28th May 2017
As Mozart spent a lot of time in Augsburg – where his famliy came from – the city has decided to honor his genius every year with the so-called “Mozartfest”. Not only does the “Mozartfest” concern itself with Mozart’s first-class music, which still inspires and provokes people all over the world; it also gives you insight into the person Mozart was as well as the people that surrounded him such as his father, Leopold. At the festival, contemporary composers present their works for the first time and the “MEHR MUSIK!” workshops give children and teenagers the opportunity to learn about improvisation or the invention of instruments.
Mozart – “as touchy as gunpowder”
Now you might be wondering what makes Mozart and his personality so interesting? He was born Joannes Crysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. Later, he would call himself Wolfgang Amadé Mozart, which is close to what you’re used to. However, he was actually never called Amadeus but Amadé or usually “Wolferl”. So, this is one of the things you probably didn’t know about him.
Also, he had very high self-esteem, as he received a lot of positive feedback from his father and many other people he met throughout the years. He was quite lively and somewhat jittery but not so handsome and was always well dressed. He was very religious and trusting, which sometimes led him into trouble. He was also very sensitive when it came to negative criticism or his artistic existence being restricted. Many people also think that Mozart was poor towards the end of his life. He did suffer financial problems but was never really poor.
Not what you expect
All in all, he was definitely not just an inconspicuous, hard-working and successful musician as you might have imagined. There were quite a few people during his lifetime that actually disliked Mozart’s music because it was too complex with too many notes.
So, if you want to be surprised by the world of a person you don’t know enough about yet, then go ahead and take a look at next year’s “Mozartfest”. You won’t be disappointed.
If you live or study in Augsburg, you’ve probably heard of the discussions about modernising Augsburg’s theatre, which is estimated to cost 186 Million Euros. 186 Million Euros is a lot of money, and, as always, when a city decides to spend its citizens’ tax money, especially so much of it, there are protests.
In the case of the Augsburg theatre they’re especially fierce because many of the opponents of the refurbishing of the theatre claim that it is only serving the interests of a fraction of the population. So do we really need a theatre in Augsburg?
There might be many arguments for or against the theatre’s restoration, but let me give you a few reasons why we might want a theatre in Augsburg, rather than fighting over whether we need one.
Have you been to the theatre, lately? No? Don’t worry, it’s never too late to start a good habit. No, you don’t have to turn into a hard-core theatre visitor just yet, but why not try out something new? The Augsburg theatre has many different things to offer. There are the plays, of course, and they alone come in many different shapes and sizes. Some are funny – others dramatic. Some are long, while others are short. If you are not a fan of plays, you can also go to an opera and listen to the opera singers fill the room with their powerful voices. In case emotional Italian arias is a bit heavy to start with, there are always the ballet performances, which are my personal favourites! If you’re thinking of pale girls in tutus, think again, because many of the performances are very modern and exciting and for the girls among you, let me assure you that the male dancers are very nice to look at. Augsburg’s ballet group has even been recognised as one of Germany’s best ballet groups and it really shows!
But the Augsburg theatre not only offers a diverse range of performances; it also offers a pleasant relief from our media-flooded world. When was the last time you actually saw real people on a stage, instead of a TV? And when was the last time you listened to live music, instead of turning on Spotify? I admit that watching a play, an opera or a ballet performance requires a little more effort than a TV show, for example. This is because you actually have to imagine something to be able to engage with the story being told. But your brain will thank you if you just let it wander about freely for a change, and who knows – you might come across some interesting thoughts in your head!
Another reason why I love the theatre is the other people in the audience. If you thought people only go the theatre to look at the actors, dancers or singers on stage, you couldn’t be more wrong! There’s nothing more interesting and amusing than looking at everybody’s outfit while you enjoy a drink and a snack during the intermission. Bizarre people find their way into the theatre, from women in extravagant dresses to extremely bored teenagers on a school excursion.
So, if you’re a bit curious about the Augsburg theatre now, maybe it will be you that I’m staring at next time when I’m sipping my drink during the intermission!
Author and Pictures: Noemi Hehl